Biogeochemical Monitoring of a CO2 Leak

David S. Goldberg, Jurg M. Matter, Taro Takahashi, Martin Stute, Gregory O’Mullan, Qiang Yang, M. Elias Dueker and Natalia V. Zakharova

The project investigates a shallow potable water aquifer system in sand/clay sequences of the Newark Basin group using laboratory and in situ experimental methods. The primary goal is to understand the fundamental biogeochemical processes caused by CO2 enrichment of aquifer water. The methodologies developed in this work will also be directly transferable to other sites affected by increased CO2 levels induced from CO2sequestration in subterranean rock formations.

 

Related links:
EPA Project Page
Lamont Test Well
Coverage in Popular Mechanics

Select Publications:

Assayag, N., Matter, J., Ader, M., Goldberg, D., and Agrinier, P. (2009), Water–rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects, Chemical geology 265(1), 227-235.

Matter, J. M., T. Takahashi, and D. S. Goldberg (2007), Experimental evaluation of in situ CO2-water-rock reactions during CO2 injection in basaltic rocks: Implications for geological CO2 sequestration, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 8(2).

 

In Situ Stress and Risk of Induced Seismicity from CO2 Injection

Natalia V. Zakharova and David S. Goldberg

Induced seismicity due to pore pressure increase presents a significant risk for carbon sequestration in fractured formations. In order to evaluate fracture stability, detailed knowledge of the in situ stress is required. High-resolution wellbore images allow identifying both natural discontinuities and drilling-induced failures indicative of the in situ stress regime. This study demonstrates an application of borehole techniques for stress analysis at a potential CO2-storage site in the Newark Rift basin in the northeastern U.S (TriCarb project). Effects of borehole deviation on wellbore failure and constraints on complete stress field have been determined. Stability of natural fractures at various depths was evaluated for a range of potential stress profiles. Preliminary analysis suggests that a significant capacity for pore pressure increase without fracture reactivation exists in deeper reservoirs, but additional in situ test data are needed for a more complete assessment of the induced seismic risk from potential CO2 injection in the region.

Study site location, and a schematic diagram of the TriCarb borehole indicating three potential reservoir-caprock pairs in the Passaic formation of the Newark Basin supergroup.

Study site location, and a schematic diagram of the TriCarb borehole indicating three potential reservoir-caprock pairs in the Passaic formation of the Newark Basin supergroup.


Magnitudes of horizontal stresses at the top of reservoir layer 1 based on Coulomb faulting theory and Anderson’s classification of faults. Permissible stress ranges highlighted in red correspond to the case of breakouts occurrence in layers with rock strength C=40-50 MPa, and an absence of tensile fractures. (The red lines outline the stress conditions for borehole breakouts formation, the green line corresponds to the criterion for occurrence of drilling induced tensile fractures for zero tensile strength. The blue polygon indicates limits of Mohr–Coulomb failure for frictional equilibrium of pre-existing faults. Three regions separated by the blue lines correspond to normal faulting (NF), strike-slip faulting (SS) and reverse faulting (RF) stress conditions.)

Magnitudes of horizontal stresses at the top of reservoir layer 1 based on Coulomb faulting theory and Anderson’s classification of faults. Permissible stress ranges highlighted in red correspond to the case of breakouts occurrence in layers with rock strength C=40-50 MPa, and an absence of tensile fractures. (The red lines outline the stress conditions for borehole breakouts formation, the green line corresponds to the criterion for occurrence of drilling induced tensile fractures for zero tensile strength. The blue polygon indicates limits of Mohr–Coulomb failure for frictional equilibrium of pre-existing faults. Three regions separated by the blue lines correspond to normal faulting (NF), strike-slip faulting (SS) and reverse faulting (RF) stress conditions.)

Related links:
TriCarb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration
Drilling for Carbon-Storing Rocks in Suburban New York
Lamont projects on induced seismicity from underground injections

Select Publications:

Zakharova, N. V., D. S. Goldberg, and D. Collins (2013), In-Situ Stress Constraints from Borehole Data in the Context of CO2-Storage Site Characterization, Proceedings of the 47th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, 23-26 June 2013, San Francisco, California, USA.

Goldberg, D. S., T. Lupo, M. Caputi, C. Barton, and L. Seeber (2003), Stress regimes in the Newark basin rift: evidence from core and downhole data, The great rift valleys of Pangea in eastern North America, 1, 104-117.